Volkswagen launched the Lupo city car in 1998. Versions of the small car that are regarded to this day as technical milestones appeared on several occasions. In 1999, with the Lupo 3L TDI (45 kW / 61 PS), Volkswagen was the first manufacturer to prove that a car with a consumption of 3.0 l/100 km was feasible. One year later, the Lupo FSI (Fuel Stratified Injection) with 77 kW / 105 PS was the first German car with direct gasoline injection (consumption: 4.9 l/100 km). The Lupo GTI was a marked contrast: with 92 kW / 125 PS, it reached a top speed of 205 km/h. By the time the model was discontinued in 2005, more than 477,000 units of the Lupo had been produced.