Homeland of different nationalities
Due to its comparatively longer liberal immigration policy, people from almost all parts of the world live in the northern European state. A large number of immigrants came from Germany, Italy or Turkey in the 1960s followed by asylum seekers from Iraq, Iran and Lebanon in the 1980s. With the enlargement of the EU in 2004, unlike in Germany and Austria, the citizens of the new EU member states were able to enter and work in Sweden without restrictions on freedom of movement. However, despite European integration, the Scandinavians kept their own national currency, the Swedish Krona (SEK).
Tax on carbon dioxide emissions
Sweden is often used as a model in the discussion about the pricing of CO2 emissions. As mentioned, Sweden introduced a CO2 tax as early as 1991. The energy industry, other industries and all consumers of fossil fuels were taxed with the price of CO2. The success proves the Swedes right: In the years that followed, emissions fell while the economy grew. It was an important first step towards achieving CO2 neutrality by 2045 and is pioneering work for climate protection.
Starting 2030: no new cars with combustion engines
Another important step: The climate protection law was introduced by Prime Minister Stefan Löfven (Swedish Social Democratic Party, SAP) in early 2018. Its aim: To make the kingdom the world's first “fossil-free welfare state”. By 2030, emissions should be cut 70 percent below the 2010 level. From 2030, no more new cars with a diesel or gasoline engine will be sold.
In order to promote sales of emission-free cars, Sweden introduced a bonus-malus system last year: Motorists who purchase an electric car receive a bonus of up to 6,000 euros and purchasers of combustion engines with high CO2 emissions must pay a penalty tax of up to 7,500 euros. Diesel vehicles are particularly affected.
The idea could pay off: Many Scandinavians still drive cars that are not efficient in terms of CO2 emissions. The penalty could hit them particularly hard. For car manufacturers, it is more of an incentive to build cars with less CO2 emissions.