A key element in the energy transition. The breakthrough of e-mobility will create a giant mobile energy storage facility: for example, several hundred thousand ID.3 cars can store as much energy as all the pumped-storage power plants in Germany. Especially in the context of the energy transition, this mobile storage facility offers considerable potential and will need to be used intelligently. Nowadays, wind turbines and solar farms are often shut down when power generation exceeds current demand. In future, these facilities can continue to operate as it will be possible to store the excess green power using electric cars. This way, the electric car could not only make a contribution to network stability but also become a key element in the energy transition.
Bidirectional charging. Over the next few years, Volkswagen will introduce bidirectional charging on its vehicles and charging solutions step by step. Currently, work is in progress on a new edition of ISO 15118. In future, this will be the standard for bidirectional charging using CCS connectors in Europe, a key prerequisite for the establishment of this technology. This way, the companies and sectors participating could finally bring bidirectional charging to mass production. As a first step, the electric car will initially be integrated into the home network, with smart connection (the “vehicle-to-home” stage).
Vehicle-to-home. The integration and intelligent networking of the electric car in the home network will offer considerable benefits. For example, it will be possible to charge the electric car in a targeted way when electric power is offered at especially low cost and excess power is available. On the other hand, the electric car can also deliver power, covering the power demand of the home on a temporary basis. In this case, the high-voltage battery of the electric car will provide buffer storage. In the final resort, vehicle-to-home can both reduce the user’s energy costs and make a contribution to network stability. In combination with the photovoltaic system it would even be theoretically possible to make the entire home autonomous in terms of energy. The entire system will be controlled and optimized by a digitally networked home energy management system (HEMS) combined with a bidirectional wallbox.
Vehicle to grid. Currently, the electric car as part of the general power grid is still a vision for the future. Apart from appropriate vehicles and wallboxes as well as amendments to the relevant legislation, it will also be necessary to make further investments in the digitalization of the power grid. Vehicle-to-grid will call for highly intelligent technical systems and harmonized interaction between a number of technical elements ranging from infrastructure to the vehicle itself. Where is excess power available? Where do bottlenecks occur? And what are the demand charges? All these aspects will need to be managed by the energy system of the future on a real-time basis. In this area, the automotive industry, power generators and network operators can only be successful together.